Partiju finansēšanas leksika (vārdnīca)

Kas ir valsts nozagšana?

We define state capture as the efforts of firms to shape the laws, policies, and regulations of the state to their own advantage by providing illicit
private gains to public officials. Hellman, Joel; Kaufmann, Daniel, Confronting the challenge of state capture in transition economies, Finance and Development magazine, September 2001

Lielisks resurss: IFES 2009.gada ziņojums, 109-112.lpp. Daži Latvijā mazāk dzirdēti piemēri:

Co-opted Politician
An elected official who receives significant financial support from wealthy donors that, in turn, influence the official to make certain policy choices.

Democratically Financed Elections
An electoral system in which candidates' campaigns are funded with resources that come from the people as a whole, rather than an elite few.

Equitable Playing Field
An electoral contest in which competing candidates have resources that are commensurate to their abilities to fundraise and receive campaign contributions with which to run their campaign.

In-Kind Contribution
A contribution of goods, services, or property offered free or at less than the usual charge.

Independent Expenditure
An expenditure of money for advertisements or other communications which expressly advocate the election or defeat of a candidate, which is not made in conjunction or coordination with any candidate or candidate's campaign committee.

Informal Transactions
Financial donations and expenditures that occur outside the scope of the law. They can range from vote buying to unaccounted, in-kind support from public and private enterprises, and to the abuse of public resources.

Level Playing Field
An electoral contest in which competing candidates have equal resources with which to conduct their campaigns

Matching Funds
Public money given in a specific ratio to candidates who succeed in raising prescribed amounts of private money in individual contributions of a certain size. This is commonly found in the United States.

Misuse of Administrative Resources
The use of state and public sector powers and resources (including coercive capacities, personnel, financial, material, and other resources) by incumbent politicians or political parties to further their own prospects of election, in violation of legal and/or other norms and responsibilities governing the exercise of public office.

Pay to Play
A reference to the shadowy nature of money in politics: in order to be assured access and influence with elected officials, a person or group has to make significant contributions to those officials' re-election campaigns.

Payoff
The return on a campaign investment made by a vested-interest contributor e.g., special appointments (such as ministerial positions), tax breaks, subsidies, regulatory exemptions, or uncompetitive bids for government projects.

Plutocracy
The wealthy elite who dominate politics by virtue of public officials' dependence on their campaign contributions, or by virtue of their ability to use their money to win major public office themselves.

Quid Pro Quo
From the Latin, "something for something," what vested-interest campaign contributors get from elected officials as a result of their strong financial backing (this may include a tax breaks, subsidies, appointments, regulatory exemptions, or uncompetitive bids on government contracts).

Unequal Access to Office
A concern that certain socio-economic constituencies lack minimum financial resources to run a campaign or get meaningful representation.

Uneven Playing field
The risk that large sums of money can give unfair advantage to certain candidates and/or political parties, effectively diminishing the competition.

Vouchers
A form of in-kind public financing by which eligible candidates and/or political parties receive certificates entitling them to a specified amount of free campaign resources, such as postage or media time.

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