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Eiropas Padomes Venēcijas komisija nākusi klajā ar ziņojumu par vēlēšanu šķēršļiem politiskajām partijām (piemēram, procentu barjeras)


Venēcijas komisija apkopojusi Eiropas valstu praksi par brīvo un imperatīvo mandātu, kā arī to gadījumu regulējumu, kad no vienas partijas saraksta ievēlēts partijas pārstāvis parlamentā maina savu partejisko piederību.

Venēcijas komisijas apkopojums par to, kā vēlēšanu sistēma ietekmē sieviešu pārstāvību vēlētajās institūcijās

Venēcijas komisijas 2009.gada vērtējumā par Ukrainas vēlēšanu likumu kā problēma pieminēts apstāklis, ka tikai partijām ir tiesības izvirzīt kandidātus vēlēšanām:

10. The Draft Law links tightly candidatures to parties (Article 10). Article 53.1 establishes that the party can nominate a person, who is a member of this party or non-partisan. This respects the principle of not requiring persons to be members of parties. However, the problem is that only parties may present candidatures and this raises some additional limitations: Paragraph 7.5 of the OSCE Copenhagen Document recognizes the right of citizens to seek political office, individually or as representatives of political parties or organisations, without discrimination. Whilst the option for a “democracy of parties” is totally congruent with European standards, the Draft law should include provisions that ease the eligibility of citizens without diminishing the option for structured candidatures. Hence, the possibility of having candidatures which respond to the model of coalition of voters under the same requirements of submission of candidatures as standard political parties will contribute to enhance electoral fairness. This requires changes in article 10.2.

Līdzīga atziņa izteikta Gruzijas vēlēšanu likuma vērtējumā:

22. The Georgian Constitution (Article 50) and the Election Code (Article 93) do not provide a possibility for independent candidates to run in parliamentary elections; only political parties and electoral blocs may nominate candidates. In contrast, an initiative group of at least 5 voters are permitted to nominate independent candidates to run in the Presidential and local elections (Articles 81 and 119 respectively.) Prohibiting independent candidates challenges the principle that countries must respect the right of citizens to seek political or public office, individually or as representatives of political parties or organisations, without discrimination.[10] It is thus recommended that the provisions on candidacy for Parliament, both in the Constitution and in the Election Code, be amended to allow for individual candidates to participate in Parliamentary elections.

Eiropas Padome piedāvā parakstīšanai jaunu konvenciju (kā protokolu pie Vietējo pašvaldību hartas) par tiesībām piedalīties vietējās pašvaldības lietās:

These measures for the exercise of the right to participate shall include:
ii securing the establishment of:
a procedures for involving people which may include consultative processes, local referendums and petitions and, where the local authority has many inhabitants and/or covers a large geographical area, measures to involve people at a level close to them;
b procedures for access, in accordance with the Party’s constitutional order and international legal obligations, to official documents held by local authorities;
c measures for meeting the needs of categories of persons who face particular obstacles in participating; and
d mechanisms and procedures for dealing with and responding to complaints and suggestions regarding the functioning of local authorities and local public services;
iii encouraging the use of information and communication technologies for the promotion and exercise of the right to participate set out in this Protocol.

Eiropas Padomes [] rekomendācija par e-demokrātiju


Venēcijas komisijas amicus curiae Armēnijas Konstitucionālajai tiesai par to, vai ir pieļaujama tiesu varas pārstāvju iesaistīšana Vēlēšanu komisijā (interesanta argumentācija par to, kādēļ tas nepārkāptu varas dalīšanas principu).

Venēcijas komisijas deklarācija par vēlēšanu likumu stabilitāti

Venēcijas komisijas apkopojums par pozitīvo diskrimināciju (affirmative action) dažādās Eiropas valstīs

Vietējo un reģionālo varu kongresa 2008.gada rezolūcija, ar kuru pašvaldības tiek aicinātas ieviest e-rīkus vietējās demokrātijas uzlabošanai:

9. Calls upon local authorities in Council of Europe member and observer states to:
a. embrace e-tools as a means of improving local democracy;
e. ensure that the agendas and reports of council meetings are available online;
f. ensure that successful initiatives are shared with other authorities;
g. give serious consideration to how they could improve their engagement with citizens, through the use of such tools as blogs and online surgeries, and improve the feedback that they receive from citizens through the use of tools such as e-petitions and e-panels;

Vietējo un reģionālo varu kongresa 2002.gada rekomendācija, kur pašvaldībām tiek rekomendēts iesaistīt iedzīvotājus lēmumu pieņemšanā:

1. Direct, representative local democracy
a. The 5th report notes that in all member states of the Council of Europe, local democracy is based on representation of the local community by an assembly directly elected by the people. This fundamental principle has long been established in many states.
b. At the same time, for the great majority of European municipalities today, direct democracy in its purest form, that is a meeting of the population to manage local affairs, is more often than not ruled out by both the size of the population and the complexity of the matters being dealt with.
c. The Congress considers that, in important matters of local public interest, recourse to a referendum should be envisaged wherever possible. This form of consultation entails a procedure whereby the local population is required to take a genuine decision binding on the local authorities. In matters of lesser importance a popular consultation may also be envisaged, a procedure whereby the population is merely required to give an opinion which is not binding on the local elected representatives, with whom the final decision lies in such situations.
d. The Congress has noted signs of a high level of abstention in local elections, which is a cause for concern. It believes that election campaigns and the act of voting are unique opportunities for citizens to have their say in local policy making.

2. Public participation
a. It is essential to the proper functioning of local democracy that the links between local authorities, elected representatives and the public be strengthened.
b. This can be achieved, inter alia, by establishing and promoting advisory councils (of foreigners, young people,
senior citizens, children, etc.) or neighbourhood councils, reflecting the entire range of interests of the local population, subject to the proviso that any final decision will lie with the elected representative body, except where local affairs are managed by citizens’ assemblies or where the law provides for any other form of direct public involvement in the management of community affairs.
The national legislation of the member states should make it generally compulsory for local authorities to inform the public in advance of their overall policies.
A valuable means of strengthening links between municipal authorities and the public is to publicise decisions or debates in progress concerning community affairs as widely as possible (through official registers, notice boards, Internet sites, the local press, official local authority newsletters or local radio and television). Methods of publication should be varied, embrace modern trends and reach as wide an audience as possible.
Public meetings of the local assembly should be the rule, as is the case in the majority of member states, and closed sessions the exception. This rule should normally be established by law, which should provide for proceedings to take place in camera only in specific cases, in order to protect privacy or citizens’ fundamental rights.
The public must be entitled to put questions to local officials at meetings of the assembly and be given regular opportunities to consult elected representatives and local government officers.
c. Citizens’ right of access to administrative documents must be upheld by local authorities in accordance with national law, it being understood that due account will also be taken of protection of privacy, citizens’ fundamental rights and of municipalities’ financial capabilities. In this connection, the Congress draws attention to Recommendation Rec(2002)2 of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe to member states on access to official documents.
d. As already pointed out by the Congress in its Recommendation 61 (1999), the existence at local level of the institution of ombudsman or mediator can have a beneficial effect in terms of good governance, stronger links between the public and local authorities, and greater openness and efficiency in local administration.

Eiropas Padomes 1997.gada rezolūcija par cilvēku līdzdalību tiešajā demokrātijā. Tajā atrodami vēlamie standarti referendumu organizēšanai.

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